There are several formulations of dualism. All have in common the assumption that the mental is something different from the physical and inherently irreducible to it. Basically, however, disagree as to: If the mind is an intangible substance or entity other than the brain or rather of that intangible property. If it is possible that the mind interacts with the brain and if so, whether the causality is bidirectional or unidirectional only. If the mental is an emergent property of biochemical or, conversely, is a basic attribute of a certain type of material types or entities Substance dualism Cartesian Interactionism Parallelism Radical Interactionism epiphenomenalism Properties Properties Properties PROPERTIES Emerging From Basic Dualism Substance Cartesian interactionist The Controversy Reflection “When considering carefully what I was and see that I could pretend that he had no body whatsoever and which would have no place whatsoever in which I found, but could not pretend why I was not, but rather, through what he thought of doubting the truth of the other things are still very true and obviously I was, while just stop thinking, if everything else would have imagined had been true, no longer had reason to believe that I was, I knew why I was a substance whose whole essence or nature is thinking, and does not need to be, any place or rely on any material thing. So I, ie the soul which I am what I am, is entirely distinct from the body and it is even easier to find him, and though the body were not, the soul would not be all that is “Speech Method, Part Four interactionist substance dualism: The Cartesian doctrine of two substances A consequence arising from the Cartesian thinking is the theory of the two substances..